Project on Ethnic Relations
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The Project on Ethnic Relations (PER) is
dedicated to preventing ethnic conflict in Central and Eastern Europe, the Balkans and the former Soviet Union. PER was founded in 1991 in anticipation
of the serious interethnic conflicts that were to erupt following the
collapse of Communism. PER conducts programs of high-level
intervention and dialogue and serves as a neutral mediator in several
major disputes in the region. PER also conducts programs of training,
education, and research at international, national, and community levels.
PER is supported by the United States Agency for International
Development, the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, the Charles
Stewart Mott Foundation, the Rockefeller Brothers Fund, the Government of Switzerland, the Government of Great Britain, the Government of Romania, the
Balkan Trust for Democracy, the Carnegie Corporation of New York, NCH
Capital Inc., the Alfred and Carol Moses Family Fund,
and the People Technology Foundation, Inc.
The Project on Ethnic Relations...
- provides neutral auspices for dialogues among government officials, opposition
leaders, and representatives of ethnic groups seeking solutions to interethnic
with strategic elites, national and regional opinion leaders, government
officials, and professionals on projects dealing with ethnic conflict,
and helps them obtain expert advice.
in the development of national and local institutions to deal with ethnic
attention to the influence of the media on public opinion and works
with opinion makers to encourage professionalism and objectivity in
the coverage of ethnic issues and conflicts.
- increases the visibility of individuals and institutions of moderate views
through international recognition, validation, and support; helps them
to organize regionally; and provides them with access to information
and assistance from one another and from counterparts in other countries.
- cooperates with international and European intergovernmental organizations
in the development of strategies for dealing with interethnic tensions.
- promotes cooperation between Romani (Gypsy) leaders,
their governments, and international organizations.
a new generation of specialists to carry out both practical and analytical
work in the management of interethnic conflicts.
One of PER’s main
objectives is to initiate and institutionalize dialogues between majority
and minority leaders on sensitive issues of ethnic relations. Its activities
in pursuit of this objective are based on three principles:
- Sustained and frequent dialogue is the best means of bringing about
the long-term reconciliation of differences.
- To be successful, dialogue must be removed from the sphere of partisan
political competition to a protected space.
- Continued dialogue not only provides opportunities for the discussion
of divisive issues but also helps to transform such discussions from
exceptional to normal events.
In keeping with these principles, PER provides
a neutral framework for discussions among government officials and leaders
of ethnic groups and civic organizations within and among the countries
of the region.
Bulgaria. PER’s first
priority in Bulgaria was to support surveys and analyses, based
on objective fieldwork, in order to create a baseline of data for policy-makers.
The most important and politically sensitive issue has been the potential
for tensions between Bulgarians and ethnic Turks.
In June 2001, PER organized the first-ever
roundtable discussions between Bulgarian political leaders and the leaders
of the Movement for Rights and Freedoms (MRF), the predominantly Turkish
ethnic party. The meeting coincided with the opening of negotiations between
the newly elected Bulgarian leadership and the MRF leadership and the
unprecedented entry of Turks into the coalition governing Bulgaria. PER is working to create a permanent political
dialogue between ethnic Turkish and Bulgarian representatives. In addition,
PER conducts an extensive program of activities concerning the Romani population of Bulgaria, including projects intended to encourage
participation by the Roma in elections and to foster cooperation between
local administrations and their Romani communities.
(See the section on the Roma, below.)
PER’s office in Sofia coordinates its projects in Bulgaria and maintains liaison with governmental
and nongovernmental organizations and with the leaders of ethnic groups.
Hungary. Not only is Hungary home to several ethnic minorities (among
them one of the largest Romani communities in
Europe), but ethnic Hungarians are a significant
presence in several countries of the region, notably Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine and Yugoslavia. Hungary therefore occupies a crucial position in
regional interethnic issues, and PER conducts several programs that reflect
that pivotal role. Much of PER’s work in Hungary concerns Hungarian minority communities
living beyond the border and the interaction between their situation and
Hungary’s foreign and domestic policies.
In cooperation with the Office of the Prime
Minister, PER has organized several meetings in Hungary of representatives of ethnic Hungarian communities
in Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, and Ukraine, focusing on means of promoting constructive
dialogues between those communities and their host states. Participants
in these meetings from the United States and Western Europe have offered evaluations of the spectrum
of opinions, strategies, 4 and tactics that
were put forth, with a view toward clarifying the positions and options
of these Hungarian communities.
PER has sponsored discussions among leaders
of Hungarian parliamentary parties, officials from neighboring countries,
NATO, the European Union (EU), and the United States concerning Hungary’s Euro-Atlantic integration, bilateral relations
with neighboring countries, and the effects of these issues on Hungarian
minorities in those countries.
PER also organizes a series of international
consultations for senior policy-makers from Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine, NATO and the EU, and the U.S. government, to assess the new dynamics that
have resulted from the inclusion of some Central European countries in
NATO, and the exclusion of others. This development has a significant
impact on interethnic relations, since it divides some ethnic groups between
countries that are NATO members and those that are not.
PER was instrumental in organizing unofficial
talks between Hungarian and Romanian policy advisers beginning in the
early 1990s, with a series of meetings alternating between Bucharest and Budapest. This was a prelude to the official talks
that ultimately led to the first state treaty between the two countries,
signed in 1996. PER continues its work of promoting high-level dialogues
between Budapest and Bucharest.
PER’s activities in Hungary are administered with the assistance of
its Budapest office.
Romania. PER’s earliest
work, and some of its most notable achievements, have been in Romania. Following an outbreak of
violence in 1990 in the Transylvania region of Romania, PER launched an intensive effort to bring
Romanian officials and Hungarian ethnic leaders from Romania together for discussion. In June 1991, the
leaders of Romania’s fourteen main ethnic communities met together
for the first time, at a conference sponsored by PER and the Romanian Academy. Where there had been no contact, PER established
the first serious discussions among key decision-makers and began to put
in place a pattern of dialogue that has now replaced the traditions of
The historic reconciliation that has taken
place between Romania and Hungary and, in Romania, between
the majority Romanian population and members of the large Hungarian minority,
followed several years of intensive efforts by PER to induce the respective
sides to engage in discussions with one another. These efforts began to
pay off when, at roundtables organized by PER in 1993 in Gerzensee, Switzerland and Neptun, Romania, and in 1995 at the Carter Center of Emory
University in Atlanta, the first agreements were reached between Romanian officials
and leaders of the Hungarian community on a number of disputed issues.
One of the most important outcomes of the talks was the establishment
of a Council for National Minorities. Moreover, 300 additional openings
were created at the Babes-Bolyai University in Cluj for training
teachers for Hungarian-language secondary schools. Both Romanian majority
and Hungarian minority leaders have expressed appreciation to PER for
its contributions to making it possible to bring the ethnic Hungarian
party (the Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania, or UDMR) into the coalition that governed
Romania from 6 1997 through 2000 (Romania’s first interethnic coalition), and for
preparing the ground for the signing of the first state treaty between
Romania and Hungary in 1996.
Romanian-Hungarian reconciliation is a longterm process that requires patient work at both community
and national levels. Although the UDMR does not participate in the government
that was formed after the 2000 elections, the precedents that were created
during the course of PER-initiated dialogues over the last decade remain
a basis for continuing interethnic cooperation. Early in 2001, a formal
agreement on political cooperation was concluded between the governing
party and the UDMR. The leadership of the current government and the UDMR
have requested PER’s continuing involvement in their long-term dialogue.
Finally, Romania, along with most other countries
in the region, faces a major challenge in seeking solutions to the plight
of its large Romani (Gypsy) population, and
PER has been active in helping to organize policy initiatives on this
question. (See the section on the Roma, below.)
PER works through offices in Bucharest and Tirgu Mures, which conduct active programs of seminars and consultations
throughout Romania and carry out projects with political leaders,
the police, media, and educators.
Russia. PER’s programs
in Russia began in September 1992 with a meeting in
Moscow of representatives of more than fifty regional
ethnic groups to discuss the draft of a new nationalities policy for the
Russian Federation. Leading U.S. and European specialists, as well as Russian
government officials, participated. PER’s Russian
partner in this effort was the State Committee for Nationalities Affairs.
Russia participates in a continuing East-East—
East-West dialogue that PER initiated in 1995. The dialogue brings together
leading Russian experts and policy-makers with their counterparts from
other members of the Commonwealth of Independent States, its neighbors
to the west, the United States, and Western Europe in order to consider the impact of ethnic
and national issues on regional security. Recently, PER has devoted particular
attention to the problem of Russian-Baltic relations and their implications
for regional security. Disputes over the status of the large Russian-speaking
minorities in the newly independent Baltic states, especially Latvia and Estonia, have created major interethnic and diplomatic
frictions. PER has conducted several roundtables where the antagonists
have sought common ground.
Slovakia. PER’s efforts
in Slovakia have been credited by officials there with
helping to bring about Hungarian participation in the interethnic governing
coalition that was formed following the election of 1998. PER had worked
for several years to bridge the gap between the Slovak and ethnic Hungarian
In June 1995, PER brought
representatives of the Slovak government, the presidency, and the Slovak
and ethnic Hungarian opposition parties to Washington, D.C., for roundtable discussions
concerning regional security and minority rights in Slovakia. A follow-up meeting, co-sponsored with the
Slovak parliament, took place in Slovakia, at Casta-Papiernicka,
near Bratislava, in May 1996. An important aspect of this
meeting was the participation of senior officials from 8 9 major European organizations and the U.S. government. This dialogue was continued
at a meeting in Le Mont-Pelerin, Switzerland, in September 1996, when, for the first
time, leaders of Slovakia’s parliamentary parties, including both
ethnic Slovaks and ethnic Hungarians, signed a declaration of cooperation
concerning minority rights.
The deep rift between Slovak and ethnic Hungarian
political leaders, however, has turned out to be more durable than some
had hoped. By 2001, the interethnic governing coalition had been seriously
challenged by a dispute over the terms and conditions of Slovakia’s program of decentralization, which Hungarians
perceived as insufficient to satisfy their expectations. With the assistance
of its Bratislava office, PER remains in close touch with all of the principals
and expects to renew and extend the series of Slovak-Hungarian discussions
that had contributed to the earlier easing of tensions.
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro). The end of the Milosevic era has left Yugoslavia (and its neighbors) with a dangerous tangle
of interethnic problems that a decade of wars has worsened. PER’s efforts in Yugoslavia focus on several key issues of interethnic
relations in that country: between Serbs and Albanians; among the several
ethnic communities in Vojvodina and in Montenegro; political tensions between Serbia and Montenegro; and the problems of the Yugoslav Roma.
In September 1993, PER
brought Serbian intellectuals and political leaders to New York to participate in a seminar
with U.S. experts on the Balkans. The seminar focused on how Serbian moderates
could rebuild bridges between Serbs and ethnic minorities in the new Yugoslavia and in its newly independent neighbors.
That was followed by a meeting in Belgrade in June 1995 that was attended by senior
officials of the governing Socialist Party of Serbia and representatives
of several ethnic minorities in Serbia. Especially noteworthy was the participation
by the leadership of the Democratic League of Kosova
(the major ethnic Albanian party), which broke the four-year boycott by
the Kosovar Albanians of public contacts with Serbian officials.
In April 1997, in New York City, PER organized a meeting at which political
leaders from Belgrade, including the heads of Serbian parliamentary parties, met
for the first time with the leaders of the Albanian political parties
from Kosovo for face-to-face discussions of the explosive issue of the
future of this province of Serbia. The group devised and issued a set of principles
to guide future dialogues. We believe that, if the Serb-Albanian ethnic
dispute is ever to be settled, the sides will ultimately have to resume
some form of dialogue, despite the further divisions that followed the
1999 war in Kosovo.
In April 2001, PER undertook its first post-war
effort in Pristina, when it organized a roundtable,
with the assistance of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in
Europe (OSCE), that included the heads of all
the principal political parties in Kosovo and the leaders of Kosovo’s
ethnic communities. Albanians and Serbs debated their immediate and future
security concerns and issues of governance. This was followed by a roundtable
in October 2001, again with OSCE assistance, 10 that brought together Kosovar Albanian
leaders with officials from Belgrade to debate whether the Serbs would participate
in Kosovo’s first post-war elections. It was the first encounter, in Kosovo,
of Albanian party leaders and Serb officials since 1997.
PER is active as well in Montenegro which, with Serbia, makes up today’s Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. During the Milosevic years Montenegro, separating itself from Belgrade’s policies, took steps to include Albanians
and ethnic Muslims in leadership positions and became an alternative model
to the extreme ethnic nationalism that prevailed in Serbia at that time. PER has launched a program
to help the republic organize government institutions and to devise legislation
aimed at expanding and safeguarding minority rights and participation.
In October 2001, PER arranged for discussions between the leaders of Montenegro’s two ethnic Albanian parties and the mainstream
political parties, and brokered the first agreement between the sides
to systematically consider a series of Albanian requests concerning education,
medical care, municipal governance, and the like. PER has been asked to
monitor and to participate in the process.
Regional and Multinational Programs
Problems in interethnic relations typically
extend beyond national boundaries, posing security problems for entire
regions. PER therefore makes particular efforts to bring together officials
and political leaders from different countries to consult on the regional
and multilateral dimensions of interethnic tensions.
PER’s regional efforts are organized into five
major initiatives: an East-East — East-West series, which brings together
Russians and Central and East Europeans (with Western participation) to
discuss their evolving relationships; a Central European series, bringing
together leaders from neighboring countries that share an interest in
minority populations; a Balkan political leadership series; a Euro- Atlantic
series; and a series on the Baltic region.
East-East — East-West series. Officials and political leaders from Central
the Russian Federation, Ukraine, and other newly independent states gathered
in Moscow in January 1995, together with participants from Western Europe and the United States, to discuss ethno-national issues and their
impact on regional security. At the conclusion of the meeting, participants
made plans for a standing consultative group to arrange for the further
consideration of these issues.
Upon the advice of the standing group, the
dialogue was resumed in Moscow in March 1996, when political leaders, government
officials, and policy advisers from the Central and East European countries
and the United States conferred with their Russian counterparts
about improving East-East and East-West relations. The discussion on this
occasion was dominated by deep differences over the implications of NATO
enlargement for regional security. PER convened the third meeting in the
series in Warsaw. This meeting took up the question of how
ethnic and national rivalries affect regional security, and considered
means and prospects for cooperation in light of new alliances being made
in Europe. The series will be continued.
Central European series. Diverse ethnic populations in this region
straddle state boundaries in a bewildering variety of patterns, and often
are the focus of serious contention. There is an urgent need to make leaders
from all of these countries aware of the consequences of their policies
and behavior for the security of the entire region. The issues have become
all the more acute as the differential rate of NATO and EU enlargement
creates new patterns of interethnic competition and cooperation. Interethnic
tensions, which have traditionally been approached as domestic or bilateral
matters, are increasingly played out within larger systems of multilateral
relations. PER believes that all countries in the region can profit from
a more realistic understanding of the relationships among the domestic,
regional, and international dimensions of policies and practices concerning
To this end, PER has organized a series of
highlevel consultations for political leaders
from Austria, Hungary, Moldova, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, and Ukraine, with U.S., NATO, and EU participation. These informal
discussions, in which the participants are cabinet-level officials and
opposition party leaders, provide unique opportunities to debate, express
opinions, and develop working relations outside the glare of public exposure.
Southeast Europe series. In 1997, PER, with assistance from the Council
of Europe, initiated a series for young leaders from the 13 region. Countries in that region have lagged
behind in the development of intra-regional ties and in preparations for
integration into European and international institutions. Beset by the
wars following the breakup of Yugoslavia, by the postponement of economic reforms,
and by the complex mosaic of interethnic rivalries, some Balkan leaders
have been inclined to adopt a pattern of self-isolating behavior that,
if left unchecked, can only prolong the dangers of ethnic violence. This
initiative is aimed at encouraging emerging Balkan leaders to develop
a consultative framework within which interethnic issues can be constructively
discussed. Another regional initiative, launched in 1998, encourages officials
of the ministries of education from the region to review secondaryschool
history texts with the aim of introducing more objective, and less nationalistic,
treatment of neighboring countries.
During the 1999 war in Kosovo PER convened,
in Rome, an emergency meeting of political leaders from across the Balkans
to discuss the crisis, its impact on their countries, and to make recommendations
for postwar stabilization.
After the war PER launched a major regional
initiative, “Albanians and their Neighbors.” In 2000, two PER gatherings
of senior leaders from the Balkans and officials from NATO, EU, OSCE,
the Council of Europe, the United Nations, the U.S., Russia, and other European countries took place
in Budapest and Athens, respectively, with the support of the Hungarian
and Greek governments. (The Athens meeting, held in December, was the first
time since the war in Kosovo that Yugoslav cabinet members sat down at
the same table with the senior Kosovar Albanian
leaders.) The core issues were 14 the future of
Kosovo, stability and democracybuilding in Albania, interethnic relations in Macedonia and Montenegro, relations between Belgrade and Pristina,
and the policies of the international community in the Balkans. Additional
sessions are planned.
A new series, on “Serbs and their Neighbors,”
was initiated in December 2001. This effort is intended to bring together
Yugoslav and Serbian officials, ethnic Serb leaders from Kosovo, from
Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Croatia, as well as officials from countries that
Euro-Atlantic series. Ethnic conflicts are all too often exacerbated
by ineffective and inconsistent responses by the Western powers. Conceptual
and policy disagreements and misunderstandings between the United States and Europe, as well as among European countries and
institutions, have often delayed or paralyzed responses to outbreaks of
violence and have sometimes created political tensions in the Euro-Atlantic
With this in mind, PER
initiated a project to delve into the reasons for this problem and to
consider policy options.
In January 1998, at a meeting in Brussels co-sponsored by the Office of the Secretary
General of NATO, PER organized discussions that included officials and
consultants from NATO, the U.S. government, and the European Union. A second
meeting was held in Brussels to consider in depth the European institutional
capacity to deal with interethnic disturbances and the implications of
Europe’s dependence on the United States.
Baltic series. Another PER initiative concerns Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, which experienced increasing tensions with
Russia following the collapse of the U.S.S.R. One
of the major regional issues is the status of very large ethnic Russian
populations in Estonia and Latvia. In 1998, PER arranged
for the first highlevel Russian-Baltic region-wide
dialogue in Novgorod, in northwestern Russia, emphasizing the potential
for cooperation between Russia’s northwest provinces
and the Baltic countries.
A second meeting in the series was held in
Riga, Latvia, in January 1999. The participants considered
issues of social integration of the Russophone
communities in Estonia and Latvia and Russian-Baltic relations. Future plans
include roundtables between leaders of the Russian minority communities
in Estonia and Latvia and the political leaders of those countries.
The Roma (Gypsies), Europe’s largest and most vulnerable minority,
are especially numerous in Central and Eastern Europe and the Balkans. The treatment of the Roma
is in many respects a litmus test for the region’s new democracies.
Building the capacity of the Roma to help
their communities has been a guiding principle of PER’s
activities in working with this ethnic group. PER’s
trailblazing work with the Roma began in 1991, before the plight of this
transnational minority became such a public concern. In
May 1992, PER organized a landmark meeting in Stupava,
near Bratislava, Czechoslovakia, for Central and East
European officials and leaders of the Romani
This was followed in April 1993 by a gathering in Snagov
(Romania) that was organized in cooperation with
the Romanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. These events are now considered
to be the beginning of the international effort to create a long-term
agenda on the Roma for governments and for Romani
The PER Romani Advisory
A team of prominent Romani
leaders, activists and experts from Central and Eastern Europe, Russia, and the United States advises PER on its projects,
and designs Romani policies for the international
community and for their governments. PERRAC functions as an informal ‘think-tank’
that creates new ideas and concepts in addressing Romani
Empowering young Romani
leaders and activists. The Roma need well-trained and educated leaders who can serve as
spokesmen and participate effectively in mainstream political life. PER
initiated an internship program for young Romani
leaders at the Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights of
the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (ODIHR/OSCE) in 1995. Several prominent Romani
leaders are the products of that effort. PER currently facilitates the
participation of Romani leaders in major European
councils concerned with the Roma.
Development of national policies. PER brings together government officials
and leaders of the Roma for dialogues on designing effective state policies
toward the Roma. PER has held groundbreaking meetings in several countries
of the region that have led to adoption of new policies. PER has brought
government officials and Roma involved in policy-making to Brussels, where members of the European Commission
discussed the importance of effective state policies toward the Roma.
Increasing Romani participation
in political and social processes. PER supports efforts of
the Roma and their leaders to increase participation of the Roma in elections
both as voters and as candidates. In a series of projects on elections PER has encouraged the Romani leadership to seek new political strategies.
Addressing sensitive issues and those of immediate
concern. PER responds to
challenging and sensitive issues for the Roma, including root causes of
Romani migration, the legitimacy of their leadership and representation,
and government statistics on the Roma. In an effort to combat ethnic stereotypes
of that community, PER has pioneered in working with the mass media and
the police on coping with “ethnic” crime statistics that are sometimes
used to paint a derogatory picture of the Roma.
PER’s cooperation with international organizations. PER promotes cooperation and partnerships
among Romani leaders, their governments, and
international organizations. PER cooperates with ODIHR/OSCE, the Council
of Europe, and the European Commission. PER staff
and overseas offices are frequently consulted by organizations and European
institutions working on Romani projects.
Education, scholarship, and training. Education,
scholarship, and training are important parts of PER’s
program on the Roma. In cooperation with the Ministry of Education in
Romania, PER conducts a series of training workshops
for teachers of Romani children, organizes seminars
to support the development of a distance learning program for poor Romani students, and sponsors training sessions for newly
appointed Romani school inspectors. PER has
also supported scholarship and publications on the Roma. The PER report
“Roma in the Twenty- First Century: A Policy Paper,” published in 1997
and written by Romani scholars and activists,
is an essential resource for practitioners.
Working with Strategic Elites
One of the chief obstacles to the peaceful
resolution of interethnic conflicts has been the lack of expert advice
available to governmental authorities, leaders of political oppositions
and ethnic minorities, and academic and social institutions. Seeking to
deal with this problem, PER locates and provides access to expertise that
may help to avoid violence and to manage conflicts when they occur. These
efforts have been concentrated in three crucial areas: political leadership,
the media, and the police.
Political leadership. PER endeavors to help political leaders recognize
and avoid the cycles of provocation and reaction that characterize violent
ethnic conflict. PER representatives monitor developments that lead to
crises and consult with government officials and opposition leaders on
peaceful and practical measures to defuse them. For example, PER has sponsored
seminars in Romania on mediation techniques for leaders of ethnic
communities in Transylvania and for Romanian police officials. The seminars were conducted by
a specialist from the Community Relations Service of the U.S. Department
From time to time, PER brings key participants
in interethnic disputes to the United States for consultations with academic specialists
and government policy-makers in order to familiarize them with other perspectives
and to update U.S. colleagues on developments in their regions.
The media. The influence of the media on ethnic relations
cannot be overemphasized. The media, particularly when they manipulate
public opinion for political purposes, bear much of the responsibility
for such events as the outbreak of interethnic violence and warfare in
the former Yugoslavia. Encouraging the media to provide more objective
coverage of interethnic disputes has been a major preoccupation of PER.
Leading print and TV journalists from Central
and East European countries and Russia met in Prague in March 1994 to discuss the reporting of
ethnic tensions. This was the first in a series of PER initiatives that,
over the years, have brought journalists together in several countries
to consider ways to improve the professionalism of their coverage of interethnic
issues, to consider the depiction of the Roma in the mass media, and to
attend training seminars given by respected senior editors. PER also organizes
exchanges and roundtables for publishers and journalists from Romania, Hungary, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Russia, the Baltic countries, Croatia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The police. In everyday life, the police are the most
visible embodiment of state authority, and their behavior often sets the
tone for social relations at the community level. PER’s
concern with police-management training began with an effort to analyze
the causes of mob violence against the Roma in Romania. A PER team sent to the field in February
1994 discovered that much of the problem could be attributed to a lack
of expertise in ethnic-tension management and to the scarcity of resources
available to lawenforcement officials. PER, together with the Southern Police Institute of the University of Louisville (Kentucky), and with the assistance
of the Romanian General Inspectorate of Police, the Interior Ministry,
and the Council for National Minorities, held several seminars for senior
police commanders on the policing of ethnic confrontations and the influence
of the police on social and ethnic relations.
These activities led to the formation of
a department of prevention within the Romanian General Inspectorate of
Police to monitor social and ethnic tensions, with the aim of preventing
conflicts or, when necessary, intervening in a timely fashion to minimize
the loss of life and property. The department has a branch in each of
Romania’s counties and a center in Brasov, which employs social scientists to assist
the police in tracking ethnic and social relations in Romania. PER has facilitated similar initiatives
in Hungary and Slovakia, also conducted by the Southern Police Institute.
Publications and Information
PER issues reports on its
conferences, workshops, and meetings as well as a newsletter. These publications are distributed free
of charge to interested institutions and individuals.
PER also maintains a World Wide Web site
that contains publications and information about PER. The address is www.per-usa.org.
The following publications and documents
are available in print form from PER, or can
be downloaded from PER’s
website. Please check the website for new additions.
- Romanian-American Symposium on Inter-Ethnic Relations (1991)
- The Romanies in Central and Eastern Europe: Illusions and Reality (1992)
- Nationality Policy in the Russian Federation (1992)
- Interethnic Relations in Serbia/Yugoslavia: Alternatives for the
- The Media of Eastern
the Former Soviet
on Interethnic Relations (1994)
- Managing Ethnic Conflict: The Kona Statement
- Countering Anti-Roma Violence in Eastern Europe: The Snagov Conference
and Related Efforts (1994)
- Ethnonationalism: Fears, Dangers, and Policies in the Post-Communist
- Slovakia Roundtable in the United States (1995)
- Democratic Processes and Ethnic Relations in Yugoslavia (1995)
- Russia and Eastern and Central Europe: Old Divisions and New Bridges (1996)
- Second Slovakia Roundtable (1996)
- Ethnic Relations: A Selected Bibliography (1996)
- Reporting in a Post-Conflict Environment: Bosnian and Croat Journalists
- The Media and the Roma in Contemporary Europe: Facts and Fictions (1996)
- The Roma in the Twenty-First Century: A Policy Paper (1997)
- Prevention of Violence and Discrimination Against the Roma in Central
- Enhancing Regional Security: Russian and Central European Perspectives
- The New York Roundtable: Toward Peaceful Accommodation in Kosovo
- Images and Issues: Coverage of the Roma in The Mass Media in Romania (1997)
- Self-Government in Hungary: The Gypsy/Romani Experience
and Prospects for the Future (1997)
- Political Leaders on Interethnic Relations and Regional Security
in Central Europe: A Roundtable (1998)
- Interethnic Relations in the Balkans: New Generation, New Politics
- Schools, Language, and Interethnic Relations in Romania: The Debate Continues (1998)
- The Roma in Bulgaria: Collaborative Efforts Between Local Authorities
and Nongovernmental Organizations (1998)
- Baltic-Russian Relations in the New Geopolitical Framework (1998)
- Political Participation and the Roma in Hungary and Slovakia (1999)
- Building Romanian Democracy: The Police and Ethnic Minorities (1999)
- Catastrophe in the Balkans: Serbia’s Neighbors and the Kosovo Conflict (1999)
- State Policies Toward Romani Communities
in Candidate Countries to the EU: Government and Romani
Participation in Policy-Making (1999)
- Montenegro on the Brink: Avoiding Another Yugoslav War (2000)
- Roma and the Law: Demythologizing the “Gypsy Criminality” Stereotype
- Vojvodina: The Politics of Interethnic Accommodation (2000)
- The Year 2000 Elections in Romania: Interethnic Relations and European Integration
- The Roma in Hungary: Government Policies, Minority Expectations, and
the International Community (2000)
- Toward Community Policing: The Police and Ethnic Minorities in Hungary (2000)
- Albanians and Their Neighbors: Unfinished Business (2000)
- Roma and the Government in Slovakia: The Debate Over Migration (2000)
- Roma and Statistics (2000)
- Albanians as Majorities and Minorities: A Regional Dialogue (2001)
- State Policies Toward the Roma in Macedonia (2001)
- Parliamentary Representation of Minorities in Hungary: Legal and Political Issues (2001)
- Political Will: Romania’s Path to Ethnic Accommodation (2001)
- Yugoslav Roma Face The Future (2001)
- Leadership, Representation and the Status of the Roma (2001)
- Joint recommendations by Romanian government officials and representatives
of the Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania, Gerzensee, Switzerland, February 25-26, 1993
- Joint recommendations by Romanian government officials and representatives
of the Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania, Neptun, Romania, July 15-17, 1993
- Joint statement by representatives of parliamentary parties from
Slovakia concerning interethnic relations, with special
reference to Slovak-Hungarian relations in the Slovak Republic, Le Mont-Pelerin, Switzerland, September 8, 1996
- Jointly agreed positions of the Serb-Albanian Kosovo roundtable,
New York City, April 7-9, 1997
- Concluding statement of the Serb-Albanian Kosovo roundtable, New York City, April 7-9, 19976
- Communiqué of the Roundtable on Interethnic Relations in Vojvodina, Vienna, Austria, September 23-25, 1999
- Communiqué of the seminar on The Impact of the Electoral Year 2000
on the Status of Minorities and the European Integration of Romania,
Poiana Brasov, Romania, February
- Communiqué of the Roundtable on Interethnic Relations in Vojvodina, Athens, Greece, February 14-15, 2000
PER Regional Centers
In addition to its U.S. headquarters in Princeton, New Jersey, PER maintains centers and representations
Bulgaria; Budapest, Hungary; Krakow, Poland; Bucharest and Tirgu Mures, Romania; Moscow, Russia; Bratislava, Slovakia; Belgrade, Yugoslavia and in Pristina.
These offices provide neutral settings for mediation, sponsor regional
opinion surveys and other forms of applied research, and serve as a resource
for public officials, journalists, and others who seek objective information
about ethnic issues. The offices also organize special seminars and programs.
© Copyright 2002 by Project on Ethnic Relations